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How to Hack Mobile Networks - Chapter 1

28. 12. 2022 Wednesday / By: Robert Denes / The key / Exact time: BST / Print this page

F irst, let's familiarize ourselves with the mobile network, computer and programs, and briefly with viruses, in order to better understand what hacking is, what hackers hack when you listen to the radio or read the latest news in your newspaper - they've been hacked.

Even ancient people liked to communicate "wirelessly" with light, sound and smoke signals, but how did the portable and convenient communication system that is widespread nowadays develop? We are already at 5G, but what were the predecessors like?

Generation Zero (0G)

The very first mobile phone, or rather radio phone service, became available right after the Second World War. The name "zero generation" refers to the fact that modern mobile phone technology was preceded by these mobile radiotelephone systems.

Technologies used in 0G systems included PTT (Push to Talk), MTS (Mobile Telephone System), IMTS (Advanced Mobile Telephone Service), AMTS (Advanced Mobile Telephone System), OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, the public land mobile phone) and MTD (Swedish abbreviation Mobilelefonisystem D, or the D mobile phone system).

These early cell phone systems were already commercially available.

They were part of a public switched telephone network with their own numbers, rather than part of a closed network like a police radio or taxi dispatch system. Motorola devices were mostly installed in cars or trucks, although bag models were also made. Primary users were loggers, construction workers, real estate agents and celebrities. They were used for basic voice communication.

The first generation (1G)

Introduced in 1979, it had a download speed of 2 Kbps and used the 450 MHz frequency band. The first generation includes those types of cellular-based mobile radio systems that made it possible to change cells during a conversation without interrupting the call. Because with the zeroth generation, it was not yet possible to switch cells without interruption.

1G used mobile telephone system (MTS), advanced mobile telephone system (AMTS), enhanced mobile telephone service (IMTS) and push talk (PTT).

1G wireless networks mostly used analog radio signals. Over 1G, voice calls were modulated to a higher frequency of around 150 MHz when transmitted between radio towers. The modulation of 1G is PSK for signal transmission (digital) and FM for voice (analog).

The disadvantage of the 1G system was the low-capacity, unreliable transmission and poor quality voice connections. It was also highly objectionable from a security point of view, as voice calls were played in radio towers, leaving these calls vulnerable to interception by unwanted third parties, even though encryption technology was already available.

Different countries used different 1G standards. Such a standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) used in the Nordic countries, Eastern Europe and Russia, AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the United States, TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, C-Netz in West Germany, Radiocom 2000 in France and RTMI in Italy.

Second generation (2G)

Second generation cellular telecommunications networks were commercialized in 1991 by Radiolinja, a Finnish GSM operator. Its download speed is 100 Kbps. Frequencies used: 900MHz and 1800MHz.

GSM service is used by more than 2 billion people in more than 212 countries. Its popularity is due to the fact that international roaming can be used almost anywhere in the world. The SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card is also a benefit of GSM.

Among the advantages of 2G, it is worth mentioning that the voice quality of the conversation is better, because the voice and the signal (the "noise" of the line) were separated. The use of digital data service helps mobile network operators to introduce short message service via mobile phones.

For 2G, the 2.5 G standard, i.e. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), which made it possible to send multimedia content, should be mentioned, and 2.75 G was the EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution) standard. The great advantage of EDGE is that it transmits data in a shorter time than GPRS technology. For example, a 40 KB text file transfer with EDGE takes only 2 seconds, with a transfer using GPRS technology it takes 6 seconds. The biggest advantage of using EDGE technology is that there is no need to install additional hardware and software. Moreover, if a person was a user of GPRS technology, he can use this technology without paying additional charges.

Third generation (3G)

The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched in Japan, but it reached users...only later, in 2003, by Hutchison Telecommunications (Hong Kong). The maximum download speed is 8Mbps and it uses the 2GHz frequency.

3G technologies allow network operators to offer a wider range of more advanced services to users, while achieving greater network capacity by improving spectral efficiency. Services already include video calling and broadband wireless data transmission, all in a mobile environment. Additional features include HSPA data transmission capabilities that extend and enhance the existing UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) performance.

Unlike Wi-Fi or WLAN networks, 3Gs are wide-area mobile phone networks that have evolved to incorporate high-speed Internet access and video calling. Wi-Fi or WLAN networks are short-range, high-bandwidth networks, primarily for data. Wi-Fi is the general name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, cell phones, video games, and more. A videophone is a device capable of both audio and video duplex transmission.

3G technologies use TDMA and CDMA. 3G technologies use value-added services such as mobile television, GPS (Global Positioning System) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3G technology is fast data transfer speed.

The 3G system is compatible with 2G technologies. 3G aims to enable greater coverage and growth with minimal investment.

There are many 3G technologies, such as W-CDMA, GSM EDGE, UMTS, DECT, WiMax and CDMA 2000. The evolution of GSM is characterized by improved data transfer rates, and EDGE is called a backward digital technology because it can work with older devices.

The 3.5G standard was HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access), which became available only in 2005 and provided higher data transfer speeds for UMTS-based 3G networks.

Then again, two years passed until the release of the 3.75G standard, the much higher speed HSPA+ (High-Speed Packet Access), which is nothing more than an improved version of high-speed upstream packet access.

The fourth generation (4G)

The nomenclature of generations usually refers to changes in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backward compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands. The purpose of creating 4G, i.e. with developments dictated by needs, was high data transmission speed, a comprehensive IP infrastructure, high capacity and the use of open Internet standards.

In 2009, TeliaSonera was the first in the world to launch a public LTE (Long Term Evolution) service in Oslo and Stockholm, thus enabling the sharing of HD multimedia content over the network. The download speed in a mobile environment is 100 Mbps and uses a frequency of 1800 MHz.

Huawei has further developed the working 4G communication with a speed of 100 Mbps and has set a target of a maximum theoretical data transfer speed of 1 Gbps in a fixed environment, all of which.

The next generation, 5G

5G is currently being rolled out. The goal of its creation is to create a global network by uniting all telecommunication service providers - in addition to merging the many small ones - that would provide coverage in any part of the Earth, all from 30 GHz to 300 GHz. 5G will operate in different frequency ranges for each region, keeping the old frequencies so that existing systems can also be used. Of course, 5G developments are added to these, which have been and will be used to exploit the potential inherent in the new technology.

5G will be capable of speeds of 1 and 10 Gbps (which can be shared by many users at the same time without quality degradation), but this plays an important role mostly in minimizing the access time (latency). The essential change is the coverage, which ensures fast access. As a result, information can come practically in real time (Real Time), which will result in a huge change in all areas of life, enabling the flow of information at a high speed and volume that has never been experienced before. Thanks to the global coverage of 5G, we can get immediate information from many sources, which eliminates the delay. If the real-time information flow wasn't enough, 5G will be able to stream at 32K resolution (30720 × 17280) while maintaining such an access time. The 32K resolution indicates the image quality. Currently, a 4K video stream requires a connection of roughly 35 Mbps, and a 32K requires approximately 1.5-2 Gbps.

Still, what good is all this, since we have been happy without it until now. The basic goal is to replace wired internet. The IoT, i.e. the Internet of Things, lists electronic devices/equipment that are able to recognize essential information and communicate with other devices with similar capabilities via an Internet-based network. A few concrete examples that justify the raison d'être of 5G. You will be notified immediately without delay if something happens during your trip that would prevent you from reaching your destination. Even if a falling rock, an avalanche, a tornado, or even an accident hinders you on your way, you will be informed immediately, and you still have the opportunity to choose another route in time. There is also a notification like this now, but the point is Real Time and lots of information. Another example is that the structure of 4G was not suitable for the safe operation of self-driving cars. With 5G, these cars can react immediately, because again there is no delay. During the development of the "Smart City", for example, different public transport vehicles and the traveling public can "communicate" with each other. Even today there is passenger information, but it is not accurate enough. South Korea, for example, is developing security control with the use of 5G. But it will result in great progress in health care, trade, various production sectors, various administration processes, administrative tasks, without the need for completeness.

The sixth generation (6G)

In telecommunications, 6G is the sixth generation cellular system standard currently under development for wireless communication technologies supporting mobile data networks. It is the planned successor to 5G and will likely be significantly faster. Like its predecessors, 6G networks will likely be mobile broadband networks in which the service area is divided into small geographic areas known as cells. Many companies ( Airtel, Anritsu, Apple, Ericsson, Fly, Huawei, Jio, Keysight, LG, Nokia, NTT Docomo, Samsung, Vi, Xiaomi, research institutes (Technology Innovation Institute) and countries (United States, European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates) have shown interest in 6G networks.

6G networks are expected to be even more diverse than their predecessors and likely to support applications beyond current mobile usage scenarios, such as virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), ubiquitous instant communication, pervasive intelligence, and the Internet of Things (IoT) . Mobile network operators are expected to adopt flexible, decentralized business models for 6G, with local spectrum licensing, spectrum sharing, infrastructure sharing and intelligent automated management supported by mobile edge computing, artificial intelligence (AI), short packet communications. and blockchain technologies.

As of October 2022, however, there is no generally accepted government or non-government standard for what constitutes 6G technology.

According to some assumptions, millimeter waves (30-300 GHz) and terahertz radiation (300-3000 GHz) can be used in 6G. However, the wave propagation of these frequencies is much more sensitive to obstacles than the microwave frequencies used in 5G and Wi-Fi (around 2-30 GHz), which are more sensitive than the radio waves used in 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G.

In 2020, scientists from Singapore's Nanyang Technological University and Japan's Osaka University announced that they had created a chip for terahertz (THz) waves.

In October 2020, the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) formed the "Next G Alliance", consisting of AT&T, Ericsson, Telus, Verizon, T-Mobile, Microsoft, Samsung and others, and which will "promote North American mobile" as a technology leader in 6G and beyond for the next decade."

In January 2022, Purple Mountain Laboratories of China claimed that its research team had achieved a world record data rate of 206.25 gigabits per second (Gbit/s) for the first time in a laboratory environment within the terahertz frequency band, which is said to be the basis of 6G cellular technology.

In February 2022, Chinese researchers said they had achieved record streaming speeds using vortex millimeter waves, an extremely high-frequency radio wave with rapidly changing spins. The researchers transmitted 1 terabyte of data over 1 km (3,300 ft). ) in one second. The rotational potential of radio waves was first reported by the British physicist John Henry Poynting in 1909, but its use proved difficult. Zhang and his colleagues said their breakthrough was built on the hard work of many research groups around the world over the past few decades. In the 1990s, European researchers conducted the earliest communication experiments using vortex waves. A major challenge is that the size of rotating waves increases with distance, and the weakening signal makes high-speed data transmission difficult. The Chinese team built a custom transmitter to generate a more focused vortex beam so the waves rotate in three different modes to carry more information, and developed a high-performance receiver that can pick up and decode huge amounts of data in one split.

On November 6, 2020, China successfully launched an experimental test satellite with candidates for 6G technology and 12 other satellites using a Long March 6 launch vehicle. According to the Global Times, the purpose of the satellite is to "test terahertz (THz) communication technology in space".

Recently published scientific article and discuss the concept of 6G and the new functions that may be included. Artificial intelligence features in many of these predictions, from AI infrastructure supporting 6G to “6G architectures, protocol.





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